# Prop School – Part 6: Slip

Response to my Prop School series has been gratifying. It has generated a lot of good discussion (online and off) regarding propeller design, function and application. One of the most common questions is about prop slip. It is the most misunderstood of all propeller terms.

Propeller blades work like wings on an airplane. Wings carry the weight of the plane by providing lift; marine propeller blades provide thrust as they rotate through water. If an airplane wing were symmetrical (air moves across the top and bottom of the wing equally), the pressure from above and below the wing would be equal, resulting in zero lift.   The curvature of a wing reduces static pressure above the wing — the Bernoulli effect — so that the pressure below the wing is greater. The net of these two forces pushes the wing upward. With a positive angle of attack, even higher pressure below the wing creates still more lift.

Similarly, marine propeller blades operating at a zero angle of attack produce nearly equal positive and negative pressures, resulting in zero thrust. Blades operating with an angle of attack create a negative (lower or pulling) pressure on one side and a positive (higher or pushing) pressure on the opposite side.  The pressure difference, like the airplane wing, causes lift at right angles to the blade surface. Lift can be divided into a thrust component in the direction of travel and a torque component in the opposite direction of prop rotation.

Prop Slip

Slip is the difference between actual and theoretical travel through the water. For example, if a 10-inch pitch prop actually advances 8-1/2 inches per revolution through water, it is said to have 15-percent slip (8-1/2 inches is 85% of 10-inches). Similar to the airplane wing, some angle of attack is needed for a propeller blade to create thrust. Our objective to achieve the most efficient angle of attack.  We do this by matching the propeller diameter and blade area to the engine horsepower and propeller shaft RPM. Too much diameter and or blade area will reduce slip, but at a consequence of lower overall efficiency and performance.

Calculating Rotational Speed, Blade Tip Speed and Slip

Our propeller engineers study props at the 7/10 radius (70% of the distance from the center of the prop hub to the blade tip). The 7/10 radius rotational speed in MPH can be calculated as follows:

And can be shown by a vector arrow.

Blade tip speed can be calculated using the following equation:

Forward speed is shown by an arrow in the direction of travel. The length of the arrows reflect speed in MPH for both the measured speed and the theoretical (no slip) forward speed.

Prop Slip Calculator

Back in the day when the Everything You Need to Know About Propellers book was published, the Internet didn’t exist and you had to actually use these cumbersome formulas or rely on the Quicksilver Propeller Slip Calculator.

We Have an App for That

Click here to see some real world examples on how I use the app.

I hope you have found my Prop School blog series both educational and useful. I’ve enjoyed sharing with you.

## 23 thoughts on “Prop School – Part 6: Slip”

1. Bud Stoudt says:

Back in the day that is how we did it. It worked well and thanks for putting the tools out there to help customers to get a better understanding of how props work. Way to go Scott!

2. Zach Malhiot says:

I guess I don’t understand how you can come up with a theoretical boat speed that does not depend on the pitch of the prop?

1. Fred Kiekhaefer says:

Simply, it does depend on prop pitch: Theoretical speed = pitch x prop shaft rpm (with unit-of-measure conversion constant). Here’s our prop slip calculator: http://mercuryracing.com/propellers/propslipcalculator.php
Without pitch, but with a wealth of installation history, one can estimate likely boat speed – based on power, weight, hull type, drive and prop type, and drive installation parameters.

3. Jeff Perry says:

Is it true that Cleavers have negatively progressive pitch? It sure looks that way!

Jeff

1. Scott Reichow says:

Jeff,
Cleavers in the past were typically a constant pitch. Today, they are a positive progressive pitch.
Scott

4. james fritz says:

Hi
Is there (or what is) the maximum speed at which a propeller can be rotated in the water before it starts to lose efficiency – presumably this varies with the diameter of the prop – so I am probably asking what is the maximum usable velocity of the tip of the prop??

thanks – very interesting article

1. Nick Petersen says:

James,

With the thousands of different hull deisgns, it is impossible to say. Every hull has a different balance and water flow, we adjust our propeller designs accordinly.

Nick

5. dene white says:

Scott, long time no see.
You helped me prop my 2015 Ranger with the Bravo XS and I have loved it from the beginning and have turned several other guys on to the Bravo and have cured set up nightmares.
Now I’m moving to a 2019 Ranger z520L..I’m told I need to run a 23 or 24 pitch fury….nobody is mentioning a Bravo XS or why…just like in 2015 I’m guessing nobody is educated on the benefits gained in the Bravos design. Question…Will the Bravo set up work with the new 4stroke?
and like we did in 2015 run a slightly higher pitch like a 25-25.5?

1. Nick Petersen says:

Dene,

Great to hear! Scott says hi as well. With the new four stroke, you can migrate over to the Bravo I FS line, same design minus the extra vent holes. The Fury could still be faster on top end with a light load but the Bravo will carry loads, as you have found out. You are spot with pitch, there is generally a two inch pitch difference between the Racing Bravo family and the Fury family. If you still have a 27 pitch Bravo I XS, you can plug the 4 forward vent holes and test it. Having baseline data always helps with propping.

Nick

6. dene white says:

to add. We ran a 27 Bravo XS on the 2015 Ranger while others Tried to run the 25-26 Fury.

7. Dene White says:

Nick and Scott, Thanks a bunch.
Crunching the numbers I was pretty confident that there would be a Bravo fit. And nice tip on the baseline, I will pass on the data FYI……….See ya

8. Sam says:

Mercury Enertia Eco im interested in this prop,im running a 26 tempest to 6100 at 74-75 mph on gps. boat is a12 250 pro xs 12 Nitro Z8 10 inch hydralic jp i like the 16 inch diameter would this prop work looking for more speed and what pitch would be recommened thank

1. Nick Petersen says:

Sam,

Consider the 28 pitch Bravo I XS. The Nitros have been performing very well with the Bravo, both top end and handling. The fourth blade and 15.25 inch diameter will help you make the most of your hydraulic jack plate. The 8 vent holes on the Bravo I XS will help with planing performance.

Nick

9. IVICA C. says:

Hi,
I am about to receive (in one week) new Quicksilver 875 sundeck with SINGLE Verado 300 V8 XXL.

QS 26,3 ft (8m) hull length
9,8 ft (3m) beam width
8500 lbs total weight (boat+engine+gear+fuel+people on board…)

Mercury Verado 300xxl V8 max. rpm 6000, gear ratio 1,75 or 1,85 – not sure.
As I spoke to the local dealer, they are not sure which prop to use, as this is relatively new boat and new engine for them, and have no experience. 🙂
So , after reading prop school from 1-6, I am thinking about :
Enertia ECO 17P or
Revolution 17 P. ??
I am not in position to test props before, so I would like to be as close to “very good” as possible. Later when I will see actual data it will be easier to upgrade – if needed. Your advice will be of great help !
Best Regards,
Ivica

1. Nick Petersen says:

Ivica,

Congrats on the new boat. That is a pretty large boat for a single 300, if your gear ratio is 1.75, I would consider going down to a 16 pitch Rev 4 XP. That is based on an estimated 41-43 mph top speed.

Nick

1. IVICA C. says:

Hi Nick,

Gear ratio in fact is 1.85:1 !
My goal is to have best fuel economy at cruising speed (23-28 mph), and top speed 39+ mph .

Would you still consider REV 4 XP 16 Pitch as good choice, or ?

BR
Ivica

1. IVICA C. says:

What is main difference between REV 4 and REV4 XP ? I think REV 4 is only available in 15 and 17 pitch (not 16) ?

BR

Ivica

2. Nick Petersen says:

Ivica,

The 16 pitch will offer you great handling and top end speed will be about 40 mph with the 1.85 gears. We offer the Enertia ECO XP down to a 16.5 pitch, but I think that would be a bit too big of a propelller for you. If you are outside of the US, you may have an easier time getting your hands on the standard Mercury 15 pitch Revolution 4.

To answer your other question, we take the Revolution 4 and fine tune it at Mercury Racing, in doing so we are able to offer different pitches than standard so that we can dial in motors to their peak RPM range.

Nick

1. IVICA C. says:

Nick,
thanx a lot.It is much more clear now. I will try with standard prop (?) coming with boat and make some testing.
Then will see..
BTW I was checking REV 4 XP 16 RH + flow torq ss adaptor for 5/4″, but did not find anybody offering it. Mostly everybody offers 18 + pitch. Any suggestion for dealer ? or could be ordered from you ?
BR Ivica

2. Nick Petersen says:

Ivica,

You would be looking for part number 8M0142116 for the Rev 4 XP, and a FLO-TORQ SSR HD hub kit, part number 8M0101601. For your setup, the standard 15 pitch Revolution 4 should be a great starting point.

Nick

10. IVICA C. says:

Thank you for all. Will post results when boat arrive

BR

11. Jeff Lightfoot says:

This has been a great series and I have learned a great deal!
I have a 1175 Impact with a 2013 115 four stroke, it has the 2.33 gear ratio.
I am having trouble identifying the best prop for overall use with this boat and motor. It currently has a 17P aluminum 3 blade at WOT it maxes out at 6100 RPM and 36 GPS measured MPH. This is a pretty empty boat (1/2 tank of gas, just me operating and a 9.9 kicker. Looking for any advice.
Thank you!

1. Nick Petersen says:

Jeff,

You are doing pretty well with the current setup, but you can gain some performance from the Spitfire X7 in a 17 pitch. The four blades will help keep the boat on plane at slower speeds and improve handling. Happy boating!

Nick