Prop School – Part 4: Blade Cup

Illustration of cup added to the trailing edge of a typical thru-hub exhaust prop.
Blade cup location on our Lab Finished Maximus prop.

Cup is a curl formed or cast into the trailing edge of a propeller blade.  When done correctly, The face of a cupped prop blade is completely concave. Cupping is most beneficial on blades which are surfacing, either from transom height (X-dimension) or trim angle. The cup retains water on the blade for a longer period of time, enhancing thrust and efficiency. Racers and performance boaters were the first to realize the benefits of cupping. Now, most recreational props come standard with some cup.

The first three blade aluminum props for our MerCruiser powered boat featured flat blades, with 15-degree rake. The heavy, deep-vee hull ran best with the drive trimmed up (raising the bow, reducing the wetted surface, and increasing hull efficiency). We got our first experience with cupped, 3-blade aluminum props in the mid ’70s. We immediately realized greater top-end speeds. We also noticed the engine didn’t work as hard. The cupped props were more efficient. Our measurement? The paint was still on the blades at the end the season. Cavitation burns, mostly from abusive teenage kids over trimming dad’s boat, would burn away the paint. The cupped prop definitely made a difference in our application.

Location. Location. Location.

An illustration showing cup along the pitch line.
An illustration showing cup along the rake line.

Originally, cupping was done to gain similar benefits as you get from progressive pitch or higher blade rake. In fact, cupping reduces full-throttle engine speed 150-300 RPM below the same pitch prop with no cup. The location of cup on the blade determines the affect it has on performance. When the cupped area intersects pitch lines, pitch increases. Cupping in this area will reduce engine RPM. And, as I experienced with our family runabout, cupping can also prevent prop cavitation or blow out.   Blade rake can be increased when the cup intersects the rake lines. Slip is a measurement of propeller efficiency as it turns through the water, the normal range is 10-15%. Most racing and performace boats slip can be as low as 5-7% where as sterndrive powered step bottom boats with high X (drives mounted high) can see slip as high as 22-24% at WOT.

Cleaver Cup.

Cup lication on a cleaver-style propeller.
All Mercury Racing propellers spend time on the grinding wheel.

Adjusting cup on cleaver-style propellers is more difficult. First, the material is stainless steel. Second, the trailing edge is very thick and runs straight out on the rake line. Pitch can be altered some by grinding away some of the cup. Rake may also be altered slightly.  The rake can be reduced by decreasing the cup near the tip of the blade. Rake can be increased by reducing the cup near the prop hub. Remember that any change in cup affects engine RPM.
The Bravo I propeller family is a good example of how cup changes RPM and the attitude of the boat (see my “Bravo I for Outboards”).
I will discuss blade configurations and factors that effect propeller efficiency in Prop School – Part 5.

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30 thoughts on “Prop School – Part 4: Blade Cup”

  1. Thanks for posting. I still have the old “Everything you need to know about propellers” summary had online long ago. That document teached me the basics about the magic props. Still learning every day but reading that piece triggered my attention to prop technology.

  2. The issues I’m having is when I’m at full trim 5250 rpm I will loose about 3 mph so I back off the trim to regain my speed ! I’m running a 24 pitch lazor2 on a 17 ‘ r 78ranger sport. With a 125hp mercury. Will cupping help me or hurt me. ? Or should I try a different prop. ? This is the prop that ranger boats recommend !!! What do u think ?

    1. Eric,
      If your 125 is the 4 cylinder, it has an rpm range of 4750 to 5250 at WOT. And if you’re hitting 50 mph (or close) you may have the best set up already. It is possible to over trim; you’re in the driver’s seat. Adding cup may help the propeller stay hooked with the engine trimmed out further. However, the added cup could have a negative effect by lowering engine speed 150 – 200 rpm at WOT. There is also a good chance the speed will drop 1.5 to 2 mph.

    2. Sounds more like you’re over propped. You could take some cup out to gain higher engine rpm or drop down to a slower prop. Being able to hit top rpm at wide open throttle is a must.

    1. Jean,
      Most prop shops increase or decrease rpm my modifying the cup height, there are a few shops that have a pitch block and will bend the prop to the pitch block.

  3. I’m wondering if cupping will help me I’m running a Javelin Renegade 20 (20-foot foot bass boat) with a Johnson 225, 6 inch Jack Plate, 25 pitch 4 blade Renegade prop,5800WOT. Problem is I’m not getting enough bow lift trimmed all the way up I still feel like I’m plowing a lot of water and I really don’t gain any speed from 5500 to 5800RPM?

  4. I have a 1996 24 feet 5100lbs boat with a 5.7 mercruiser. Someone stole my prop. I’m having trouble finding one that works well. Do you have a recommendation. I’ve been told everything from a 14×17 to a 16×16. Boat is a deep v Hull.

    1. David,
      To close to call, but it is going to be between the 15-inch x 17-inch pitch or the 16-inch x 16-inch. With the information you’ve provided, I’m leaning toward the 17-inch pitch.

  5. Have an inboard with a 5.7l Vortec Indmar with a Holley. Changed my prop from a cast prop with .04 cup to a CNC prop with .08. All other dimensions the same. The changes were fairly dramatic. RPMs dropped by 400 at WOT. Since we us it for skiing, the acceleration out of the hole was smooth and constant with no cavitation. Cavitation in the turns was almost eliminated. Only issue was lost about 4 mph off the top end. To be honest the acceleration out of the hole is so good now noone really cares about the top end. That’s the way skiers think. For reference this is a 1998 Malibu response. New prop was an Acme 449

  6. I have a 18′ DynaTrak fish and ski (1200lb dry). Low and wide bass type hull. It has a 1995 115hp Mercury out back. The boat came with a 22p Lazer 2 prop. I was only able to achieve 43.5mph at about 4600 RPM. It seemed to blow out rather easy in higher speed turns. I purchased a 19p Spitfire X7 to replace it thinking id gain my appropriate RPM back and gain some top speed to boot. The 19p runs me at 4800-4900 RPM at 43mph. Holeshot is much improved as is cornering. The prop starts to cavitate at high trim and goes to about 5000rpm and i lose 2mph. Am i running the wrong props? I feel like this hull and motor should be putting me really close to 50MPH at max RPM.

    1. Perry,
      I can’t seem to find a better solution for your setup. If you go down in pitch with either of your propellers, you can expect to gain rpm and hole shot, but top end will be the same or slightly worse.


  7. Scott,

    I love these articles! You have a great way of explaining a very complicated dynamic in an understandable way!

    Here’s my situation. I have a 2016 East Cape Vantage VHP with an ETEC 150 HO. It’s a Florida style flats skiff that is 19’2” with a 79” beam and a hull weight of 950 pounds(no jack plate yet). It’s meant to go pretty fast. I expected speeds around 64mph. Unfortunately, I can’t find a prop that performs reasonably. Every prop I’ve tried thus far has either been dog slow or caused the boat to porpoise so much that I have run trim tabs even at WOT. I’ve run a 22p Raker, 22p Viper, 19p Powertech ELE, 17p Powertech OFX3, & 19p Powertech OFS4. Of those, the Viper is the best with 59 mph at 5850 rpm light and 56mph at 5600rpm with a normal fishing load and two of us in the boat. However, this prop causes the boat to porpoise quite easily even at WOT forcing me to not trim up much and keep the tabs down.

    In my research, it appears most people with my boat have success with the Mercury Tempest Plus. What pitch would you recommend 21, 22 or 23? Should I consider installing a jack plate?

    Thank you!! George

    1. George,

      I think you have a couple different options to consider. You could run a 21 Tempest but it is a bow lifting propeller and it may not fix your porpoise issue. Your other option is the Mercury Racing Bravo I LT, which has a full length flared barrel and will provide you with stern lift. Think of it as acting like a mini trim tab without you having to use your actual tabs. Consider the 21 pitch Bravo I LT for great hole shot, and a 22 pitch for maximum top-end speed.


  8. Thank you Nick!! I was wondering how the Tempest Plus compared to the Raker because I thought it might provide similar results. Would a jack plate help my situation as well?

    1. Any time George,
      A jack plate will change your setup quite a bit. If you are going to go down that route, you should install and then test the props you have to see how it changes your handling.

      The more set back you add, with average being 4 to 6 inches, the more you will have to raise the motor. The nice thing about switching to a 4 blade prop is that it will stay hooked up at elevated engine heights where a 3 blade will not. In turn, raising the motor will add RPM, allowing you to run a taller pitch prop and see a higher top speed by up to 3 mph. For reference, if your goal is to hit 64 mph, you would need to spin a 23.5 pitch prop to 5750 RPM. A jack plate could get you there but it will change the handling characteristics of your boat and you may need to change prop styles again.


  9. Hi SCOTT –
    I drive a Lund GL219ProV with a 350 Verado. Currently run a Bravo1 LT 22 pitch. WOT revs at 5950. Top end 60 – 62. Close encounter with a rock at slow speed. I’m thinking about a new prop instead of rebuilding the old one. Any suggestions? Thanks.

    1. Sandy,
      You can either stay with the 22″ pitch or drop down to the 21″ pitch Bravo I LT increasing 150 RPM. The 6100 to 6200 is the sweet spot for the motor but it’s hard to say if you’ll hit the same speed and possibly come in at 59 – 60 mph.

  10. Hi scott,
    I have a couple questions. I have a Merc 115 pro xs on a Ranger 1782 and I am reaching 6000 rpms with the lazer 2 in 19 pitch but only running 37 mph, I switch to a power tech 17 and hit the same rpms but move about 40 mph, I have a 6 inch jack plate and yet I still cant reach 6300 rpms either, got any suggestions?

    1. Jay,
      If you have the new 115 XS with a 2.07 gear ratio something isn’t right. Plugging your numbers into the Prop Slip calculator 19″ pitch 2.07 gears, 6000 rpm, 37 mph give us 29% slip when it should be down around 10% for your boat/engine/prop combination. Even the other prop has 14% slip. Slip can occur either the engine to high on the transom (not enough prop in the water) or to deep (the gearcase and midsection are causing too much drag). As a rule, your AV plate should be 1.5″ to 2″ above boat bottom.
      Let me know what your current set up is.

      1. Scott, So at the start of the AV plate at the front side of the motor its 1.5 ” and as the board runs along it goes to 1″ till it hits in the AV plate on the back of the motor, which I contribute to the transom angle, but other then that its right there. The motor was way lower before and its all raised with the jack plate now but yeah, I just keep running into a way here.


          1. Jay,
            It sounds like your are having to use trim and engine height more than you should to achieve higher rpms, causing very high propeller slip. A larger diameter prop could remedy your situation. Consider the 17 pitch Tempest Plus. Its 14.625 inch diameter should keep you hooked up, and the lower pitch will get you into your peak power range.


        1. Jay,
          Sorry I missed that you have a jack plate. With a jack plate, you can go higher than 1.5″. Try raising the engine .5″ at a time to 2.5″. Continue the .5″ increase to possibly 3.5″. Monitor the rpm and speed along with how the prop stays hooked up. There’s a point where the prop will not grab as you increase speed. At that point; lower the engine to the last position. I wish I could give you that perfect height but only you can do that with testing.

    1. Jay,
      Thanks for the data of the 17″ pitch Spitefire, my mistake referencing the Tempest I was thinking you had the CT gearcase. The 115 Pro XS only comes with the standard case, sorry about that! Running your slip number using the 17″ Spitefire it looks like it’s going to be tough to beat. To get more rpm dropping down to the 15 Spitefire would increase rpm to 5900 but the speed would drop 2 mph. If you’re okay with the hole shot I think you’re there with the 17″.

  11. Hey Scott,
    I am Currently running the 17 pitch spitfire x7 and hitting only 5600 rpms and roughly 38 to 39 mph. Just for more information.


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